114 HISTORY OR LACE. CHAPTER VIII. FRANCE TO LOUIS XIV. “ II eat une deesse inconstante, incommode, Bizarre dans sea gouts, folle en ses ornements, Qui paratt, fuit, revient, et rorait, en tout temps : Protee etait son pere, et son nom est la Mode.” Voltaire. ‘ 1 To day the French All clinquant, all in gold.” Shakespeare. To the Italian influence of the sixteenth century France owes the fashion for points coupes and lace. 1 It was under the Valois and the Medicis that the luxury of embroidery, laces of gold, silver, and thread, attained its greatest height, and point coupe was as much worn at that epoch as were subsequently the laces of Italy and Flanders. The ruff, or fraise, as it was termed, from its fancied resem blance to the caul 2 or frill of the calf, first adopted by Henry II. 3 to conceal a scar, continued in favour with his sons. The queen mother herself wore mourning from the day of the king’s death; no decoration, therefore, appears upon her wire-mounted ruff; 4 but the fraises of her family and the “ escadron volante ” are profusely 1 Italian fashions appeared early in flrentleur premiere entre'e dans le costume France. Isabeau de Baviere, wearer of des hommes vers 1540.”—Quicherat, Bis- the Oriental “ hennin,” and Valentine de toire du Costume en France. Milan, first introduced the rich tissues 4 The queen was accused by her of Italy. Louis XI. sent for workmen enemies of having, by the aid of Maitre from Milan, Venice, and Pistoia, to whom Rene, “ empoisonneur en titre,” termi- he granted various privileges, which nated the life of Queen JeannedeNavarre, Charles VIII. confirmed. in 1571, by a perfumed ruff (not gloves) 2 In Ulpian Fulwell’s “ Interlude,” (“ Description de la Vie de Catherine de 1568, Nichol Newfangle says— Medicis”) ; and her favourite son, the “ I learn to make gowns with long Duke d’Alenqon, was said, circa 1575, to sleeves and wings, have tried to suborn a valet to take away I learn to make ruffs like calves’ the life of his brother Ilenry, by scratch- ehitterlings.” ing him in the back of his neck with a 3 “ Collerettes et manchettes fraise's poisoned pin, when fastening his fraise.